Verb Groups – Japanese Verb Rules

Japanese verbs are placed into three groups.

U Verbs-

This is the more complex of the Japanese verb groups because despite the ending being -u, the word can actually end in -su, -tsu, -ku, -nu, and even… -ru.

Some notable exceptions where a -ru ending is actually a ~u verb include kaeru (to return), hairu (to enter), shiru (to know) and iru (to need).

Ru Verbs-

 This group is often also called the -iru and -eru verb group because almost all -eru and -iru verbs are-ru verbs and not -u verbs.

Irregular Verbs-

Japanese only has two irregular verbs –
kuru (to come)
suru (to do).

Below are the 3 groups of Japanese verbs

U verbsGroup 1: “u” ending verbs
 The verbs which ends with u is known as group1 verbs
 hanasu -話す- – to speak
 kaku – 書く – to write
 kiku – 聞く – to listen
 matsu – 待つ – to wait
 nomu – 飲む – to drink
  
Ru verbsGroup 2: “iru” or “eru” ending verbs
 The verbs whch ends with Iru and eru known as group2 verbs
 “Iru” ending verbs
 miru -見る – to see
 okiru – 起きる – to get up
 kiru – 着る – to wear
  
 “eru”ending verbs
 akeru – 開ける – to open
 ageru – あげる – to give
 taberu – 食べる – to eat
  
 Exceptions – some of them belongs to “iru” and “eru” endings verbs
  
 kaeru – 帰る – to return home
 hairu – 入る – to enter
 kiru – 切る – to cut
 hashiru – 走る – to run
 iru – いる – to need
 kagiru – 限る – to limit
 shaberu – しゃべる – to chatter
 shiru – 知る – to know
  
Irregular verbsGroup 3: Irregular verbs
 There are only two irregular verbs first is kuru – to come and second is suru – to do.
 kuru くる- to come
 suru する – to do
 ryokousuru – 旅行する – to travel
 dansusuru – ダンスする – to dance
 benkyousuru – 勉強する – to study