JLPT N5 Grammar Lesson2

Japanese Particles - に (ni), へ (e), で (de)

1-Japanese Particle: に (ni)

Rule – 

place + ni (に)

1- に (ni) indicates a place toward where someone or something moves.

2- It is also used with giving/receiving verbs and can then mean “from”.

3- に is also used to indicate the location of existence when combined with the verbs いる or ある, making it the Japanese version of “at” (in some instances).

Example-

学校に行きます。
Gakkō ni ikimasu. 
I go to school.

Japanese Particle: へ (e)

Rule – 

location/direction + e(へ)

1-へ (e) is basically the same as に, except it emphasizes direction over arrival.

2 – The main difference is usage. へ is never used as “from”, “by”, “at”.

3 – In addition, the particle の can follow the へ particle directly, whereas it cannot follow に.

Example-

東京行きます

Tōkyō e ikimasu

I will go to Tokyo.

Japanese Particle: で (de)

Rule –

location + de (で)

で (de) is used to indicate location of an action. The performer of the action (the subject) is followed by either of the particles wa or ga, and the place is followed by de. 

de – it is also used for tools.

Example-

電車で行きました。

Densha de ikimashita.

I went by train.