Katakana Reading and Writing

Katakana

Introduction of the Japanese Katakana alphabet

About Katakana-

  • The Japanese developed around the 9th century,  their own writing system – Hiragana and katakana(together call “kana”).
  • Of the two kana systems, hiragana is more cursive while katakana characters are more angular.
  • Katakana is mainly used for words imported from foreign languages.
  • When looking at a Japanese text, two kinds of signs: the complicated kanji and the simpler kana(Hiragana and Katakana) signs.

Origin-

  • Hiragana and Katakana originated in the 9th century when the Japanese people wanted to create their own writing system different from Kanji, which was taken from the Chinese. Together, they are known as the kana(Hiragana and Katakana). 
  • kana system may have originated from the 8th century on the Korean peninsula and was introduced to Japan via Buddhist texts.
  • Compared to Katakana, Hiragana letters have more curved lines.

Table of Katakana-

  • The following table shows the complete katakana。

 

A

Column

I

Column

U

Column

E

Column

O

Column

a

Row

a

i

u

e

o

Ka

Row

ka

ki

ku

ke

ko

sa-

Row

sa

shi

su

se

so

ta-

Row

ta

chi

tsu

te

to

na

Row

na

ni

nu

ne

no

ha-

Row

Ha

hi

Fu

he

ho

ma-

Row

ma

mi

mu

me

mo

ya-

Row

ya

 

yu

 

yo

ra-

Row

ra

ri

ru

re

ro

wa-

Row

wa

 

 

wo

 

n

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A - Line -> ア、イ、ウ、エ、オ

アーA

I

U

E

O

ka - Line -> カ、キ、ク、ケ、コ

ka

キーki

ku

ke

ko

sa - Line -> サ、シ、ス、セ、ソ

サーsa

シーshi

su

se

so

ta - Line -> タ、チ、ツ、テ、ト

ターta

チーchi

ツーtsu

テーte

 

トーto

na - Line -> ナ、ニ、ヌ、ネ、ノ

na

ni

nu

ne

no

ha - Line -> ハ、ヒ、フ、ヘ、ホ

ha

hi

fu/hu

he

ho

ma - Line -> マ、ミ、ム、メ、モ

ma

mi

mu

me

mo

ya - Line ->ヤ、ユ、ヨ

ya

yu

yo

ra- Line -> ラ、リ、ル、レ、ロ

ra

ri

ru

re

ro

wa- Line -> ワ 、ヲ

wa

wo

ンー

Table of Hiragana with dakuten or handakuten

These basic characters can be modified in various ways. 

  • By adding a dakuten marker ( ゛), then voiced changed like: k→g, ts/s→z, t→d, h→b and ch/sh→j.  
    For example, カ (ka) becomes ガ (ga).
  • Hiragana beginning with an ha-line can also add a handakuten marker ( ゜) changing the ha to a pa. For example, ハ (ha) becomes パ (pa).

 

A

Column

I

Column

U

Column

E

Column

O

Column

a

Row

ga

gi

gu

ge

go

za-

Row

za

zi/ji

zu

ze

zo

da-

Row

da

Ji,dji,jyi

dzu/zu

de

do

ba-

Row

ba

bi

bu

be

bo

pa-

Row

pa

pi

pu

pe

po

Table of Katakana with the yōon (ようおん)kana following​

These basic characters can be modified in various ways. 

  • Yōon are represented in katakana using a kana ending in i, such as き (ki), plus a smaller version of one of the three y kana, ya(ヤ), yu(ユ) or yo(ヨ).

 

ya

Column

yu

Column

yo

Column

A-

Row

 

 

 

K-

Row

kya

kyu

kyo

S-

Row

sha

shi

sho

T-

Row

cha

chu

cho

N-

Row

nya

nyu

nyo

H-

Row

hya

hyu

hyo

Table of Katakana - yōon with (han)dakuten) kana following​

These basic characters can be modified in various ways. 

  • By adding a dakuten marker ( ゛), then voiced changed like: k→g, ts/s→z, t→d, h→b and ch/sh→j.  For exampleーキゃ (kya) becomes ジゃ (gya).
  • katakana beginning with an ha-line can also add a handakuten marker ( ゜) changing the ha to a pa. For exampleー ヒヤ(hya) becomes ピヤ (pya).

 

ya

Column

yu

Column

yo

Column

Row

gya

gyu

gyo

Row

ja

ji

jo

D-

Row

dya

dyu

dyo

Row

bya

byu

byo

Row

pya

pyu

pyo