Hiragana Reading and Writing

Hiragana

Introduction of the Japanese Hiragana alphabet

About Hiragana-

  • Hiragana is the basic Japanese phonetic script.
  • Hiragana is one of three character sets used in the Japanese language.
  • Each Hiragana letter represents particular syllable. Letter itself has no meaning.
  • Hiragana is used widely to form a sentence.

Origin-

  • Hiragana was developed in the 8-10th century by simplifying the form of particular Kanji symbols.
  • Hiragana developed from Chinese characters, as shown below. By the 10th century, hiragana were used by everybody. The word hiragana means “ordinary syllabic script”.
  • Compared to Katakana, Hiragana letters have more curved lines.

Table of hiragana-

  • The following table shows the complete hiragana。

 

A

Column

I

Column

U

Column

E

Column

O

Column

a

Row

a

i

u

e

o

Ka

Row

ka

ki

ku

ke

ko

sa-

Row

sa

shi

su

se

so

ta-

Row

ta

chi

tsu

te

to

na

Row

na

ni

nu

ne

no

ha-

Row

Ha

hi

Fu

 

he

ho

ma-

Row

ma

mi

mu

me

mo

ya-

Row

ya

 

yu

 

yo

ra-

Row

ra

ri

ru

re

ro

wa-

Row

wa

 

 

wo

 

n

  • fix the goal before you start
  • If you don’t have a goal, you won’t be able to measure your progress and won’t know when to stop.
  • so lets Start to learn –

A - Line -> あ、 い、う、え、お

A

  • It is like an ‘antenna’ is on top of the roof.
  • あ as in “antenna.”

I

  • There are two eels.
  • い is pronounced like the “ee” in “eel.”
  • To remember character, just think of a couple of eels (i) hanging out.

U

  • う is pronounced like the “oo” in “oooo… ahhh!”
  • Like when you’re pulling some heavy things then we say “Ooo! This is heavy”.

E

  • え is pronounced like the “e” in “exotic”.
  • It like an exotic bird.
  • The big feathery thing on its head gives it away that it’s exotic and not normal.

O

  • お is pronounced like the “o” in “original.”
  • you Can see the letter “o” in here, two times.
  • お looks similar to あ, except there are two letter “o” symbols visible in there.

ka - Line -> か、き、く、け、こ

ka

  • think like a Girl dancig
  • か is just the “K” sound plus あ ( k+a), making a “ka” sound.
  • It is like someone who’s doing the “Can-Can” (ka) dance.
  • The か character even looks like someone doing the Can-Can.

ki

  • To remember this, notice how much it looks like a key(ki).for example we say “I have a key”.
    き as in “key.”
  • き is just the “K” sound plus い, making a “ki” sound.
  • that is it sounds just like the word “key” which is the mnemonic we end up using.

ku

  • く is the “K” sound plus う ( k+u), makes a “ku” sound.
  • Think here is a cuckoo bird. く as in “cuckoo.”
  • To remember this character, think like the mouth of a that bird popping out saying like –“ku ku, ku ku!”

ke

  • け is makes like “K” sound plus え (k+e) , making a “ke” sound.
  • for remmeber see and you can imagine this characer looks a lot like a keg( There’s a keg of beer).
  • け as in “keg.”

ko

  • Ko is a couple of co-habitation (ko) worms. They’re so happy together.
  • you could imagine a couple of short cords laying on the ground next to each other.

sa - Line -> さ、し、す、せ、そ

sa

shi

su

se

so

ta - Line -> た、ち、つ、て、と

ta

chi

tsu

te

to

na - Line -> な、に、ぬ、ね、の

na

ni

nu

ne

no

ha - Line -> は、ひ、ふ、へ、ほ

ha

hi

fu/hu

he

ho

ma - Line -> ま、み、む、め、も

ma

mi

mu

me

mo

ya - Line -> や、ゆ、よ

ya

yu

yo

ra- Line -> ら、り、る、れ、ろ

ra

ri

ru

re

ro

wa- Line -> わ、を

wa

wo

Table of Hiragana with dakuten or handakuten

These basic characters can be modified in various ways. 

  • By adding a dakuten marker ( ゛), then voiced changed like: k→g, ts/s→z, t→d, h→b and ch/sh→j.  
    For example, か (ka) becomes が (ga).

 

  • Hiragana beginning with an ha-line can also add a handakuten marker ( ゜) changing the ha to a pa. For example, は (ha) becomes ぱ (pa).

 

 

A

Column

I

Column

U

Column

E

Column

O

Column

a

Row

ga

gi

gu

ge

go

za-

Row

za

zi/ji

zu

ze

zo

da-

Row

da

Ji,dji,jyi

dzu/zu

de

do

ba-

Row

ba

bi

bu

be

bo

pa-

Row

pa

pi

pu

pe

po

Table of Hiragana with the yōon (ようおん)kana following​

These basic characters can be modified in various ways. 

  • Yōon are represented in hiragana using a kana ending in i, such as き (ki), plus a smaller version of one of the three y kana, ya(や), yu(ゆ) or yo(よ).
    For example, kyō, “today”, is written きょう(kyō) using a small version of the yo(よ). But this with きよう(kiyō), “skillful”, meaning changed.

 

ya

Column

yu

Column

yo

Column

A-

Row

 

 

 

K-

Row

kya

kyu

kyo

S-

Row

sha

shi

sho

T-

Row

cha

chu

cho

N-

Row

nya

nyu

nyo

H-

Row

hya

hyu

hyo

Table of Hiragana - yōon with (han)dakuten) kana following​

These basic characters can be modified in various ways. 

  • By adding a dakuten marker ( ゛), then voiced changed like: k→g, ts/s→z, t→d, h→b and ch/sh→j.  For exampleーきゃ (kya) becomes ぎゃ (gya).
  • Hiragana beginning with an ha-line can also add a handakuten marker ( ゜) changing the ha to a pa. For exampleー ひゃ(hya) becomes ぴゃ (pya).

 

ya

Column

yu

Column

yo

Column

Row

gya

gyu

gyo

Row

ja

ji

jo

D-

Row

dya

dyu

dyo

Row

bya

byu

byo

Row

pya

pyu

pyo